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Best Forestry Schools in the Philippines

Forests are a source of resources, about as much a home for numerous fauna and flora. Thus, in a world where pollution and environment degradation are rampant, the conservation and management of forests is an important task. The development and improvement of processes involved in conserving and managing forests is the primary job of a forester.

Professional Foresters Licensure Exam

In the Philippines, licensed and registered Foresters are called to perform the following tasks, among others:

  • Supervise and protect numerous plant and animal life in the forest;
  • Develop innovations in utilizing forest resources;
  • Conceptualize projects for the improvement, development, preservation, and maintenance of forests.

The Foresters’ Licensure Examination is conducted once every year, with the two previous exams occurring in September.

If the job piques your interest and you are considering to be a Forester soon, take note that the following topics are some of the ones included in the Foresters’ Licensure Examination:

  • Forest Dendrology
  • Forest Entomology
  • Utilizing Forest Products
  • Sustainability and Development
  • Forest Biometry, Mensuration and Inventory

To pass the Professional Foresters’ Board Exam, the examinee must obtain a passing mark of at least 75% in the exam.

Scope and Coverage of the Foresters’ Licensure Exam

    1. Forest Botany
      1. Cellular Structure
      2. Vegetative and Reproductive Characteristics of Plants
      3. Morphology and Anatomy of Plants
    2. Dendrology
      1. Classification of Forest Plants
      2. Plant Geography
      3. Gross Morphology
      4. Key to Identification
      5. Nomenclature
    3. Forest Ecology
      1. Basic Ecological Principles
      2. Forest and Other Ecosystems
      3. Hydrologic Cycle
      3.1 Evapotranspiration
      3.2 Precipitation
      3.3 etc.
      4. Ground Water
      5. Discharge of rivers/streams
      6. Forest influences (climate, soil, man, etc.)
    4. Forest Soils
      1. Soil Formation (parent material, climate, topography, living organism, time)
      2. Soil Profile/Horizons
      3. Soil Classification (categories, soil orders)
      4. Soil Properties, (biological, physical, chemical)
      5. Soil Moisture Content
      6. Soil and Water Conservation
    5. Three Physiology
      1. Tree Growth and Processes (photosynthesis, respiration, translocation)
      2. Primary and Secondary growth
      3. Shoot and Crown Development (shoot growth, crown shape/development, patterns of
      4. Flowering, Fruiting and seed production
      5. Tree Nutrition
    6. Forest Entomology
      1. Classification of Insects
      2. Beneficial and Harmful Insects
      3. Insect Infestation
      4. Preventive and Control Measure
      4.1 Biological
      4.2 Physical
      4.3 Mechanical
      4.4 Chemical
    7. Forest Pathology
      1. Diseases in Plants (signs, symptoms, classification)
      2. Parasitism (infection, resistance susceptibility, pathogenicity, etc.)
      3. Pathogenesis/disease development (influence of environment on parasites, host etc.)
      4. Pathogens (bacteria, virus, fungi, etc.)
      5. Principles and Methods of Control
    8. Forest Biodiversity
      1. Wildlife (Flora and Fauna)
      2. Classes of Wildlife
      3. Wildlife Food and Feeding Habits
      4. Economically important species
      5. Rare/endangered species
      6. Wildlife Laws, Rules and Regulations
    9. Forest Genetics and Tree Improvement
      1. Genetic Concepts and Principles
      2. Basic Concepts of Tree Improvement
      3. Methods of Tree Improvement
      4. Practical Applications and Returns
    1. Wood Structure and Identification
      1. Basic Principles and concepts of the identification of commercial and lesser-used
      Philippine woods.
      2. Anatomical properties of wood
    2. Wood Physics and Mechanics
      1. Physical properties of wood
      2. Theories and practice of wood physics
      3. Strength of wood materials on various sectoral exposures
      4. Strength of wood materials on various types of stresses
    3. Wood Seasoning and Preservation
      1. Wood Chemistry
      1.1 Basic principles and concept of wood chemistry
      1.2 Wood chemistry and its effects to the machining properties, structural strengths
      and resistance to various degrees of stresses and temperature
      1.3 Economics of chemical wood extracts
      2. Wood Seasoning
      2.1 Theories and practice of wood seasoning
      2.2 Various methods of seasoning
      2.3 Control of moisture content
      2.4 Effect of moisture on dimensional changes
      2.5 Economic aspect of wood seasoning
      3. Wood Preservation
      3.1 Principles and concept of wood preservation
      3.2 Factors affecting destruction and decay of wood
      3.3 Methods of preservation and control
      3.4 Fire proofing
      3.5 Penetrability of various species to chemical preservation
      3.6 Economic aspect of wood treatment
    4. Forest Products Utilization
      1. General Lumbering and Wood Processing
      1.1 Basic Principles and concepts of lumbering
      1.2 Purpose and elements of lumbering
      1.3 Forest products processing
      1.3.1 Sawmilling Techniques
      1.3.2 Processing of forest products residues
      1.4 Recovery and Productivity of Forest Products
      2. Veneer and Plywood
      3. Pulp and Paper
      4. Wood Composite
      5. Species suitability for various products
      6. Economic aspects of Forest Products Utilization
    5. Utilization of Non-Timber Forest Products
      1. Principles in processing utilization of non-timber forest products
      1.1 Rattan
      1.2 Bamboo
      1.3 Fibers substitutes
      1.4 Others (Vines, etc.)
      2. Economics and Valuation Aspects of Non-timber Forest Products
    1. Forest History, Policy and Administration
      1. History of Forestry in the Philippines
      2. Constitutional Provisions
      3. Revised Forestry Code
      4. Forestry Legislation
      5. Presidential Proclamations
      5.1 Decrees
      5.2 LOIs
      5.3 DAOs
      5.4 Executive Orders
    2. Social Forestry and Extension
      1. Goals, Basic Elements and Principles
      2. Definition of Terms
      3. Importance of Forest Management and Protection
      4. Community Forestry Programs
      5. Extension, Principles and Strategies
      6. Agroforestry
    3. Forest Protection
      1. Forest Rehabilitation/Restoration of Forestlands
      2. Conservation/Preservation of Wilderness Area
      3. Law Enforcement
      4. Problems/Strategies
      5. Forest Degradation and Causes
    4. Environment and Sustainable Development
      1. Concept of Sustainable Development
      2. Environmental Problems
      3. Environmental Problem Analysis
      4. Designing of Environmental Solutions and Actions
    5. Professional Ethics and Values
    1. Forest Biometry, Mensuration and Inventory
      1. Basic statistical concepts
      2. Sampling Techniques
      3. Methods and Applications of Timber Inventory Methods
      4. Definition of Terms
      5. Volume Estimates
      6. Site Quality Estimation
      7. Growing Stocks
      8. Stand Density
      9. Remote Sensing, GIS, aerial photo-interpretation
    2. Forest Management
      1. History and Foundation
      2. Principles and Concepts
      3. Development, Goals and Objectives
      4. Definition of Terms
      5. Allowable cut determination
      6. Cut Allocation and Scheduling
      7. Forest Operation Planning
      8. Integrated Forest Management Plan
      9. Regulation of Forest Stands
      10. Forest Management Planning
      11. Problem Solving
    3. Forest Economics and Finance
      1. Principles and Concepts
      2. Simple and Compound Interest
      3. Present Value of Cash Flow
      4. Criteria for Financial Investment Analysis
      4.1 NPV
      4.2 IRR
      4.3 B/C/Ratio
      4.4 Payback period
      5. Market Structure
      5.1 Production, Cost and Supply
      5.2 Shadow market prices
      5.3 Stumpage Valuation
      5.4 Demand and Supply Analysis
      5.5 Forest/Land rent
      5.6 Forest Rotation
      5.7 Problem solving
    4. Range Management
      1. Definition of Terms
      2. Factors Affecting the Grassland Ecosystem
      3. Nutrient Cycling in Grassland
      4. Ecology in Grassland
      5. Types of Grassland
      6. Management and Protection of Grassland
      7. Succession in Rangelands
      8. Problem Solving
      8.1 Determination of Animal Unit
      8.2 Grazing Capacity
      8.3 Grazeable areas
    5. Multiple Use Forestry
      1. Principles and Concepts
      2. Definition of Terms
      3. Ecosystems Approaches
      4. Sustainable Yield
      5. Primary and Secondary Uses
      6. Application and Problems
      7. Watershed Management
      8. Harmonization of Objectives
    6. Silvicultural Methods/Systems
      1. Objectives
      2. Regeneration methods
      2.1 Purpose
      2.2 Types and Applications
      2.3 Advantages and Disadvantages
      3. Intermediate Treatments Management and Protection
      3.1 Objectives
      3.2 Methods and types
      3.3 Effects on Stand Growth and Yield
      4. Forest Harvesting
      4.1 Felling and Bucking
      4.2 Tools and Devices
      4.3 Minor Log Transport
      4.4 Major Log Transport
      5. Silvicultural Practices
      5.1 Philippine Selective Logging
      5.2 Clear cutting
      5.3 Seed tree and its variation
      5.4 Shelterwood
      5.5 Coppice
    7. Forest Nursery
      1. Propagating Structures
      2. Propagating Media
      3. Propagating Techniques
      4. Nursery Management
    8. Forest Plantation
      1. Site preparation and Establishment
      2. Seedling Preparation
      3. Intermediate Treatments (clearing, weeding, etc.)
      4. Plantation Management

Which schools produce the highest number of Professional Foresters every year? We looked at previous Foresters’ Licensure Examination results to find out the schools with the highest Professional Foresters’ Board Exam passing rates. Hope you find this information useful!

Best Forestry Schools in the Philippines

Category 1: Forestry Schools with more than 100 examinees

RankSchoolPassing RateNumber of PassersTotal Number of Takers
1University of the Philippines Los Banos, Los Banos99%354355
2Nueva Vizcaya State University, Bayombong74%101135
3Mindanao State University - Main Campus, Marawi City73%102138
4Visayas State University, Baybay City71%75105
5Caraga State University Butuan, Butuan City64%168261
6Benguet State University, La Trinidad57%140244

Category 2: Forestry Schools with 100 and below examinees

RankSchoolPassing RateNumber of PassersTotal Number of Takers
1Mindanao State University - Naawan, Naawan100%1313
2Mariano Marcos State University - Main, Batac City78%1519
3Southern Luzon State University, Lucban70%5375
4Bohol Island State University - Bilar Campus, Bilar69%2536
5University of Mindanao, Davao City68%1319
6Western Philippines University, Aborlan65%2335
7University of Southeastern Philippines - Tagum Campus, Tagum City64%6499
8University of Southeastern Philippines - Bislig Campus, Bislig City63%3149
9Kalinga State University, Tabuk City62%2235
9West Visayas State University, Iloilo City62%1829
9Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University - North, Bacnotan62%1016
10Central Mindanao University, Maramag61%4472
11Aklan State University, Banga60%1220
12Central Philippines State University - Main Campus, Kabankalan City53%713

Note: The tables above only rank the passing rates of First-time takers; repeaters are not included in the passing rate. All figures are based on the four (4) previous Foresters’ Licensure Examination, specifically the ones held in September during the years 2017 and 2016, August in the year 2015, and July in the year 2014.

Source: PRC Philippines (

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